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Here at Diggintravel, we talk about airline UX design and CRO (conversion rate optimization) a lot. In the past, we showed you how airlines like Virgin Airlines and Ryanair do UX research and use it to improve their user experience.
However, we haven’t provided you with any special airline mobile UX design and conversion optimization tips yet. Until now.
We just started our 2020 Airline Conversion Optimization research, and mobile UX and CRO for mobile will be definitely and area that we’ll dig deeper into this year.
So, I thought it would be nice to talk to an expert in this area.
Anna Potanina is one of the world’s biggest specialists in UX and CRO – especially mobile CRO. She and her team at Google have performed more than 600 UX, mobile and CRO audits. If you’ve been to Google Conversions events in the past, you may have listened to her talk in which she shares her knowledge about testing and designing landing pages for conversions.
So, I couldn’t think of anybody better to talk about airline mobile UX design on our Diggintravel Podcast.
Listen to our conversation here or read the full interview transcript below:
If you want to be successful at conversion rate optimization, you need to understand your users and support their needs – and simply analyzing quantitative and analytics data is not enough to achieve that. You need a bigger picture; you need to add a qualitative aspect to the research as well.
As Anna pointed out in our discussion, that’s one thing that successful companies do:
When I’m seeing this culture of testing and experimentation, the really successful companies that I saw don’t do just data testing. Not just A/B tests. They also always do qualitative methods, and the user research and user voice has equal say along with the data. I think that is super, super important.
If you’ve ever done airline mobile UX design, you know how tricky it can be. You need to find the right balance between innovative design and a digital environment that users understand and feel comfortable in. However, as Anna pointed out, while the methodology for design and CRO is generally the same as on desktop, there are some specifics for mobile:
Doing CRO for mobile, I would say it should be the same approach as you do have on desktop; it’s just that mobile should get the same voice on all your dashboards, all your projects, in every single A/B test. You should also be running experimentation for just mobile users, separate. Not every single test is designed for all platforms. Sometimes some tests just have to be designed for mobile only.
Listen to our podcast or read the full interview transcript to get hand’s on advice from Anna about CRO and airline mobile UX design best practices.
In addition, if you want more airline digital benchmarks reports, then check out our whitepapers on ancillary revenue and ecommerce trends:
Iztok Franko: Hello Anna, and welcome to the Diggintravel Podcast.
Anna Potanina: Hello, Iztok.
Iztok: How are you today?
Anna: I’m good. The weather is great here in Dublin, and I feel super excited about the podcast. Thanks for having me.
Iztok: That’s great to hear. Before we dig deep into CRO and airline mobile UX design, I want to ask you one thing. I saw you’re also an artist. You do illustrations, right?
Anna: Yeah, I do a little bit of that and also some offline, more traditional art, but also digital art and illustrations. So a little bit of everything.
Iztok: What was the last thing that you drew or the last illustration or digital art you did?
Anna: Oh God. [laughs] That’s an embarrassing question, I think. The last thing I did was a portrait of my husband. [laughs]
Iztok: Was he happy?
Anna: He actually was, yeah. It’s still on display in our apartment. I was pleasantly surprised he decided to put it on. But yeah, it’s nothing too creative. It’s just especially things that I see in my day-to-day life. Sometimes the only way I process them is to make artwork out of them, to draw, to paint, or to do additional collage. That’s, again, the way I’m trying to process reality as a visual artist.
Iztok: That definitely sounds exciting. It’s like a good add-on to the other digital stuff that you do.
Anna: Hopefully. It definitely helps with the creativity. As a UX designer at Google, it definitely helps to understand or at least to try to come up with the answer to the question, “What is a good design?” I think every artist, every designer, has a slightly different answer to that.
Iztok: Exactly. If you go to your main profession or your main expertise, which is you are a UX and CRO consultant, especially doing it for mobile, I see you do workshops on design sprints for various clients here at Google. Maybe you can tell us what the typical UX or design sprint workshop looks like.
Anna: Sure. That’s exactly what we do. Let me elaborate a little bit more on the different UX engagements we’re doing for Google Partners. Eventually the goal of all the work of my team is to help our partners to improve user experience and conversion rates on the web or apps – mostly on the mobile web, because this is where companies would struggle a lot.
We’re doing this in different ways. We can deliver a UX workshop where we literally tell them what to do, what kind of hypothesis they can test on their website or app. We can, as you mentioned, absolutely facilitate a design sprint, and that would be more a teamwork exercise where we would act more as a facilitator rather than a UX consultant.
Then we have many other forms of one-to-one engagement so we can educate people about how they can use Google Analytics to retrieve UX insights, different A/B testing best practices, usability testing best practices, and a very recent format that we started doing – actually, in Israel, my colleagues came up with this really, really innovative format called mobile apps, but more like C-level apps, and this is when we ask a lot of stakeholders from different departments of the company to get together, watch the user, basically usability testing, and after they watch that, to come up with different action plans.
So those are the three main formats, and the UX workshops are more telling them what to do, so what are those ideas people can test on their websites or apps. Originally we started there. We developed some checklists and heuristics against which we were analyzing the assets.
But then we realized over time – my team has existed for about maybe 5 years – over time we’ve realized that a lot of times, people say “Thank you so much. That’s great recommendations,” and then don’t implement them, and then nothing happens. We started really deep diving and understanding what’s going on, why people don’t test, why people don’t implement.
We realized there are a lot of things going on and other areas would need our support as well. So we started educating about the importance of the testing approach, the importance of doing qualitative research as well, what metrics make sense to measure, how to look into data, these kinds of things.
Design sprints, I would say they do work really well if you want to improve time to implement. Again, you see people don’t action –
Iztok: So if you want to do real quick changes, agile changes.
Anna: Quick changes, agile, yeah. Design sprints would work with agile methodology really well. They just need to go ahead of developer sprints. That is something where you can maybe, for example, solve a big problem – a problem where a lot of different stakeholders would be involved. For example, we need to redesign the product cart. What was the history there? Can the UX research present their point of view? Can the UX designers tell them what has been going on in the past, the evolution of design? Could developers tell us limitations?
Then you all get together and try to solve a really shared challenge, and you try to develop a shared understanding of that problem. We’ve found it works well for people, because we would be acting as more or less a facilitator – somebody external, who is not part of the product team, but we can, again, ask people to action and to brainstorm all together and to agree that certain changes are necessary and what the solution looks like.
The last one, the user testing labs. This is where we are watching the user and we are asking different stakeholders to watch the user. Usually if the company is quite advanced in their CRO, conversation optimization approach, they will usually do user testing. But it’s usually UX designers and user researchers who do user testing.
In our labs, we are asking C-level marketing – essentially everybody to come and watch the user. This is how we’re trying to bridge the gap in between company stakeholders and the end user, so create this kind of empathy for all stakeholders, not only UX designers.
Iztok: Do you get “aha!” moments when let’s say the most senior people and stakeholders watch the users struggle on their website?
Anna: There can be “aha!” moments. They might be “oh my God” moments. [laughs] It’s really hard, because quite a lot of times, people can say, “It’s just this person. They probably don’t know how to use the internet, or they don’t have the experience.”
I was recently doing a training by the Nielsen Norman Group, basically doing UX certification with them, and they were distributing really nice UX stickers. One of them was saying that users are not stupid; they’re clever. [laughs] That’s the mindset you need to have when you go into these user labs and start watching the user. Over time, when you’ve watched a few users, you realize, “Okay, this is actually an issue in the app. It’s not the people that are stupid.”
Iztok: Do you think it helps the stakeholders if Google, you guys, the experts from Google, and the feedback and when they watch with you, and if the observations come also from Google, do you think it helps to move stuff quicker than if it’s done internally with their UX and design teams?
Anna: As we see from our practice, yes, it does. Again, it’s the fact that we are detached from the product, detached facilitators. A lot of times, especially in really advanced companies and big companies, people know their job, and they know a lot. We’re learning ourselves from every single company and the specialists we’re working with.
But sometimes this internal politics, project management, decision-making is what makes this really hard. This is where the culture piece becomes really important. When the company doesn’t have this optimization, testing, experimentation culture, it’s quite difficult to change to move fast, to fail fast. Designers would usually know this kind of stuff, the importance of this approach, but there also has to be other people involved. We as Google are trying to step in, to bring different stakeholders together, and again, act as facilitators and make them agree on certain things, that certain changes are necessary.
Iztok: Great stuff. I saw that your team at Google, you and your team did more than 600 UX and CRO audits. Which one was the most unusual one, or which one maybe did you like the most? Tough question?
Anna: Tough question, yeah. Let me think. The most unusual one…
Iztok: Or the one that you think, like you said before, there were the most “aha!” moments where you moved the needle, where you really impacted some change so the company then started to test and implement new stuff.
Anna: Maybe one of those stories that I can tell was with one multinational company. They have offices in different countries all over the world, and everywhere they have a local version of their website. I was working with a few teams based in Europe. They had also a few brands, and every brand would have their own version of the website.
Basically, my role – I started, again, my engagements with them just delivering UX recommendations, like, “Hey guys, did you consider doing this, that, that?” But after a while, our conversation evolved, and then we did a design sprint where we gathered different product managers of all the brands into one room, tried to solve a certain challenge. In the same room, we educated people at the same time about the testing approach.
Then the year after, they started doing a lot of A/B testing and sharing internally. Before, they were working in silos, and my role was to show them the importance of knowledge-sharing. If somebody tests that this and this was a success, it’s not an argument for another product to try that approach. So my goal, again, evolved over time into really being a facilitator and trying to help them set up the processes.
The next year, our engagement became more about qualitative research, and again, the importance of user testing. Also, I started showing them how they can really start with this if they don’t have a budget. But then they were so much into this, because when you’re watching real people use your product, it’s so much fun, first of all, and inspiration you can get for your day-to-day job. So they actually hired an agency.
So yeah, I can say it started really small, but then over time, my role with them evolved, and we were working a lot with some key points of contact from that company on really working across departments, across different branches, across countries, and trying to build this culture of knowledge-sharing, testing optimization – CRO, basically. This is the approach we are advocating.
Iztok: Right. I see this with airlines, because we do airlines CRO research, and now we’re just in the middle or starting with the 2020 one, airline CRO benchmarks and research. Why do you think airlines and other companies still focus in ecommerce and marketing departments more on the advertising and acquisition part than the CRO?
Anna: I think the key in your question was exactly the marketing department would focus on that and not on the CRO. I think that’s just the setup that historically exists in a lot of companies, not just in airlines. People are working in silos, and marketing would be focusing on getting more traffic and sales, and then the product teams would be looking for the product conversions and metrics.
But what CRO is teaching us is actually that you should not be working in silos, just looking into your own area of responsibility, but you need to look at the holistic user journey. What it looks like, where people come from, what kind of ads they see, how the ad corresponds with the landing experience that they get, and then what kind of touch points they usually have across different platforms of your product. What does the user journey look like?
It should not be just the UX designers, again, doing that. It should be the whole company should have this shared responsibility. The C-level has to be open and really put this as a goal, as an OKR, that we adopt this approach.
Also, what I’m hearing a lot, another reason why people would not adopt the CRO approach, not only in the marketing department but just in general, when you start with this, it may sound good in the very beginning. “Yes, let’s do the constant testing and experimentation, evolutionary design versus revolutionary.” But then after a while – you need to get used to it. It takes time to get used to CRO, because quite a lot of tests will be inconclusive. The ones that might be winning are just really a couple of percents.
This is the number one concern that I’m hearing from people who are just starting with CRO. “Where is the impact? We don’t know how to interpret results. A lot of things are inconclusive, and the wins are small.” But that’s exactly why they should be doing this, because if you don’t measure, then you may think that you’re improving the user experience of the website, but you’re not. You still need to have these metrics in place and compare the before and after to be absolutely sure you’re doing the right thing.
That’s basically, again, how you increase the ROI from your marketing campaigns. If you look at the post-click experience, if marketing would look at the post-click experience, adopt this cross-department CRO approach – yeah, we definitely ask everyone to do that. But it’s hard to start.
Iztok: What is maybe one common thing that you notice in the organizations or the companies or your clients that do CRO right? How are they different than the ones that struggle with the whole process? Or the culture that you mentioned that is so important?
Anna: Yeah, exactly. That’s the word that sums it up: culture. The culture where first of all, people make a lot of suggestions. What kind of tests do we launch? How do we study results? Can we test this? Have we tested this in the past? If yes, what exactly did the tests look like?
It’s a culture of experimentation, but more importantly, it’s a culture where it’s okay to fail. When you are making a suggestion – “Why don’t we make the call to action button sticky in the top navigation panel?” – and then over time, the A/B test shows negative results, it’s okay to fail. It’s not like people take it personally. The point of CRO is to learn and not to win, not to prove that your ideas are great and that every single time you run it, it wins.
Even highly trained statisticians, it’s a fact; they make mistakes when it comes to interpersonal results. In general, people want to prove their ideas are great, so really, it’s a culture of humble people, a culture of people who are okay with not winning tests or accepting this as reality, who are learning from every single test, from every single redesign, and then they move on and build up on those learnings.
Also, when I’m seeing this culture of testing and experimentation, the really successful companies that I saw don’t do just data testing. Not just A/B tests. They also always do qualitative methods, and the user research and user voice has equal say along with the data. I think that’s the second piece that is super, super important.
Again, it’s usually UX design doing those things, but the higher up you get in the corporate hierarchy, the closer you are to the C-level, the more data stakeholders acquire.
Iztok: You mean combining user research and other data, not just looking at analytics, but understanding your users better from questionnaires, surveys, user labs, like you said? All these research methods.
Anna: Yes, exactly, and even using this qualitative data to report up to C-level stakeholders. You can tell really powerful stories not only with data, but also by building empathy with the end user, by showing the quotes or even short videos. This is what we encourage companies to do after the user labs, to take the videos of the users and to do a short video of the most powerful “aha!” moments, if we can call it that, and send them to the C-level and use them as a way to report as well.
So the qualitative part should have an equal say as well as the quantitative methods. It’s really easy to fall into looking into just data. Recently when I was doing the certification with Nielsen Norman Group, they were calling this affection for quantitative data like “data fetishes” or “corporate cocaine.” Because again, it’s easy, right? It’s the numbers, and we’re used to thinking that data doesn’t lie.
But then data only shows us what’s going on, but why is the qualitative part of things. You can only answer the “why” by watching people.
Iztok: One of the questions in our CRO survey for airlines when we ask about the user research methods is “Which methods personally do you like the most or do you think provide you the most insights to understand your users?” Then we ask them about user interviews, moderated testing, user testing unmoderated, eye tracking, things like that. Which is your personal favorite? Which do you think adds the most insights into users’ reasoning and thinking?
Anna: Usability testing I would say is one of the most powerful, to my personal preference. Again, watching people using the product helps you to first of all identify low-hanging fruit, maybe some burning issues, something that you really need to fix now. But it also helps you to come up with some ideas, and maybe ideas for further research and exploration.
So it’s kind of both; you can have strategic projects as an outcome from this – “We probably need to look into this, do a design sprint on that, ask for additional research on this” – but you also can have a roadmap of really tactical things to change right now.
Iztok: To experiment.
Iztok: We are still talking with Anna Potanina from Google, the UX and CRO expert. Anna, one other thing that I wanted to ask you, and where your expertise is really strong, is doing CRO and UX on mobile. I recommend all DigginTravel podcast listeners and our readers to check some of Anna’s work and webinars on YouTube on mobile UX, because it’s great material with a lot of practical examples about landing pages, product pages, and all this stuff.
To me, Anna, it seems – and this is what I see when we analyze also the airline industry – that we as an industry hardly figure out how to do CRO for desktop websites. For example, how to do design, how to do analytics, how to test user research, all these things that you mentioned. Now mobile, I think it’s completely a different beast, and I see a lot of airlines struggle with it, or I see a lot don’t do the CRO and mobile at all. What do you think about how to start on mobile with CRO?
Anna: Let me break it down into just mobile, starting at mobile, what kind of things you can consider there, and then how to start with CRO if they’re not there yet.
Changing up the mobile CRO, I would say it should be the same approach as you do have on desktop; it’s just that mobile should get – again, it’s the same voice on all your dashboards, all your projects, in every single A/B test. You should also be running experimentation for just mobile users, separate. Not every single test is designed for all platforms. Sometimes some tests just have to be designed for mobile only.
It definitely should become a priority, and this is where the speed, so the performance side of things, and the UX and design side of things have to work all together. We even have this concept that Google is talking about called performance budget. That is something that you can decide as a team for your mobile strategy – for example, let’s agree, everyone, that our page has to load in 3 seconds, no more. That is our limitation. What do we want to spend this 3 seconds on? Is that a script, is that heavy images?
Every single change that any department is doing, any landing pages that marketing is launching, they have to coordinate with this OKR. This is really a great example of cross-functional work towards a shared goal, towards excellent mobile performance.
Iztok: That’s a good tip, to have a budget in seconds, not in value, in euros or in dollars.
Anna: [laughs] That’s true.
Iztok: I think my ex-managers would love that. They would give me, “Iztok, we’re giving you five additional seconds,” or they would basically reduce it. [laughs]
Anna: At the end of the day, performance is the money.
Iztok: That’s true.
Anna: I would say also there’s this idea of apps and web. They’re part of the same mobile coin. It’s quite interesting now to watch the industry and where we’re moving, because originally there was this understanding that it’s really different types of audience, it’s different company goals that you’re trying to achieve with app or web. But at the moment, the line is really blurring, and this is a trend that you will see all over industries, especially with technologies like progressive web apps that allow you to achieve the app-like experience on the web.
For example, you can introduce offline functionality. I think there’s a great example of Air France, that when you are offline, and then if you have checked in and you have a flight soon, they would be caching the page with your boarding pass. They use their offline state as an advantage and they say, “Hey, you are flying, but we saved the most crucial information for you.”
I think this is a great example of great customer experience and brand trust. We are asking people to leverage the offline state, to leverage the capabilities of the modern web. You can achieve a lot on the web that was not possible before, but now you can do it in apps and on the web as well.
Iztok: Yeah, I also saw the Air France example, and I think it worked great. Like you said, it’s good for performance and mobile UX.
If I go back to CRO and on mobile, you said – and I agree – that methodology of research and understanding users, doing analytics, and then optimizing and testing, is the same as on desktop. But what about execution? Do you need different tools, or are there any specifics for UX and design on mobile? What differences do you see when you do mobile optimization projects?
Anna: I would say some of the best practices, they are relevant only to mobile design. But that’s more the subject. It’s not the process. The process should be the same. Maybe some design guidelines would be slightly different on mobile devices because we’re using them differently, we’re holding them with our hands, so we’re tapping instead of –
Iztok: One example maybe of such a design guideline that is different, for example – for travel or general, for mobile – what would you say?
Anna: If you take the navigation bar, the desktop has been designed and originally they have this website layout where you have the navigation bar at the top. In mobile, actually the bottom of the screen is considered a more ergonomic location, because if you’re holding the phone with just one hand, you don’t need to change the way you’re holding it. You don’t need to take the second hand in order to tap. You can just tap it with your thumb.
This is what we see a lot on mobile websites. Specifically, a website would get this legacy design from desktop, so they would have this legacy top navigation bar on the top of the page. We’re asking them to challenge this and try the bottom one, because this is how the app would be designed, so why don’t you do the same bottom navigation bar, which is more ergonomic than mobile, on your website as well?
These kinds of things – the ergonomics, the size of the buttons, the contrast – well, the contrast might still be the same guideline, but yeah, even the way you are – for apps, it’s things like the on-boarding experience. Quite often when you’re installing the app, what kind of experience you want to show so that you don’t annoy people too much, but then you still add value and explain what the service is about. All of those things that are relevant to the way people interact with mobile devices.
Iztok: I think that was a great example when you say the navigation bar at the bottom instead of the top, because as you mentioned, a lot of times I see people say, “Okay, we will just do a responsive mobile site,” and these things just get replicated from the desktop to the mobile. This is probably one of the things that you would see on the first user test or the first lab test, where people will have their device in their hand and then they would need to change how they hold the phone just to access the navigation bar, right?
Anna: Yeah, but it’s still not that easy. It’s not as straightforward. If it was so obvious then everybody would have done it already. There is this user habit as well, because a lot of people are used to the top navigation bar, especially on the web, on desktop and on mobile. To some extent, people are used to the hamburger button.
Iztok: The Don’t Make Me Think principle. They don’t want it in a different location.
Anna: Exactly. But eventually, we’re saying, from the apps world and from a lot of mobile usability research, we know that the bottom of the screen is a much more accessible location. If you expose your top level categories, the icons, in the bottom navigation bar instead of hiding them behind the hamburger button, that’s a much better user experience because people are instantly aware of the different things they can do in the app and on the website. So why don’t you do this in the website? It’s tricky. There are some user trends too – not user trends.
Anna: Habits, yeah, thanks. There’s user habits as well, and it’s hard to argue with that. The hamburger button has been around for a while. But you need to challenge this constantly. Again, with the Progressive Web Apps, when we can really take inspiration from the native apps and scale this to the web platform, I think that is a really good time to start asking yourself these questions.
Iztok: You mentioned one very valid point. It’s the challenge of don’t change stuff that works or that people are used to – for example, in the airline industry, this usually is the search form. On mobile or desktop, make it look like every other search form because people don’t want to think and they don’t want this additional cognitive load of thinking. We are lazy.
But then I go to your background as an artist or as a designer/illustrator – designers, by default, they want to do new, unique, creative, visually appealing work. How do you manage these two things? I remember back in my airline days, once I spent two hours in a meeting fighting with a designer who wanted this rotating globe icon with strange shades for the language selection change. Nobody will figure this out. When we user tested, really nobody did. [laughs]
So how do you challenge this balance between – how do you motivate designers to do great design, great UX, but on the other hand don’t reinvent the wheel because users hate it?
Anna: Absolutely. I can probably only repeat what you said and agree that, yes, there is this conflict. I constantly see this in my work. When we speak to UX designers, of course they want to show the best of their creative selves and create really unique and beautiful experiences that are visually appealing, but the point of using websites is quite often following conventions, making things usable and recognizable, easy to understand. So quite often it’s just simply following best practices, that we are educating them.
As I said before, in one of my talks actually, that’s exactly the conflict that’s constantly happening in my heart. As an artist, I want to create these really unique experiences, but my daytime job is literally making all websites follow the same visual guidelines or standards.
So there is a conflict, for sure, but I think that the answer is what we discussed before about bringing stakeholders in the room, all sharing the same goals, staging this as a company-wide OKR, and including everyone in all conversations about performance, conversions, user experience.
When designers start understanding how that is really impacting the user perception, the metrics, the behavior, conversions, the money, then of course they will start adding text labels to strange icons. That’s another recommendation that we always give: add text labels to every single icon that you have on your website. You cannot be too clear. No one ever said, “Oh, this is too clear to me.”
But yeah, in general I think it’s great to still let people show the best of their creative selves, because we do want to create this unique brand feel and look. We need to aim for this in the first place. But yeah, how can you do that while at the same time maintaining the highest standard of usability? That’s always going to be the question.
Iztok: I agree, and I think it’s about education. Once you educate the designers, like you said, the UX team about the CRO, the impacts of testing, once you explain to them the effect conversion has on ecommerce, on sales, I think the really good designers get it, and then they get excited about the testing because they get feedback about their work.
Iztok: That’s a very valid point. Maybe at the end, Anna, because we are doing this airline research and the airline/travel industry has some specifics, are there any tips, any things you see for our industry , or any special recommendation for CRO or airline mobile UX design that you can think of?
Anna: I can’t think of any specific recommendations, but we have a lot of resources on this for travel, for airlines.
Iztok: I think your colleagues did this great UX Playbook for Travel, and they explained some of the principles that are also in your webinars for UX, with special travel examples, right?
Anna: Yeah, there is the Playbook for Travel. We also have a general YouTube channel about UX and conversions called Conversions Google. I can share everything with you after the podcast.
Iztok: Great, and we’ll put it in the podcast notes.
Anna: Also, there is a website called Masterful Mobile Web. This is where we have recently published industry benchmarks, and it has a section with benchmarks for travel. That’s basically the key things, key heuristics and how well they are being followed in the industry across different countries. I can share with you that one. I definitely recommend you have a look.
Also different best in class examples of how people do that. So if that’s, for example, displaying a progress bar when people are in the basket or really close to conversion, how many websites are doing this in France, for example?
Iztok: Great. This sounds great. I think at least me, all this stuff that you’re talking about, especially conversion, UX, mobile, it’s a topic I think we are both passionate about, and I could talk for another hour. But I thank you for today. I think the insights were great.
For all our listeners, we’ll put all the show notes with all the links and all the materials in the podcast notes, and you can access them there. I definitely recommend you check out Anna’s work, because the webinars and the playbooks are great. Anna, it was really a pleasure.
Anna: Thank you so much, Iztok.
Mobile UX Marathon – webinars by Google on Mobile UX and CRO
Masterful Mobile Web – best practices for travel, benchmarking by country and best-in-class examples
I am passionate about digital marketing and ecommerce, with more than 10 years of experience as a CMO and CIO in travel and multinational companies. I work as a strategic digital marketing and ecommerce consultant for global online travel brands. Constant learning is my main motivation, and this is why I launched Diggintravel.com, a content platform for travel digital marketers to obtain and share knowledge. You are welcome to reach out to me at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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